The Beginning of the Organization of Afrikan Union (OAU) in 1963.
Establishment and members
The Organization of African Unity was established in 1963 in Addis Abeba. From 32 independent Member States in 1963, the independent Member States of Africa are now 53. The OAU is entering from political liberalization to phase two by focusing on the economic integration. It has therefore a new mandate and new responsibilities which will by no means make it abandon its political character and its resolve to sustain peace and security in the continent which are crucial for the socio-economic development process.
Purposes and principles
The following purposes and principles are stated in OAU charter adopted in 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The OAU objectives are stated in Article II of the CHARTER as follows 1. to promote the unity and solidarity of the African States; 2. to co-ordinate and intensify their cooperation and efforts to achieve a better life for the peoples of Africa; 3. to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity and independence; 4. to eradicate all forms of colonialism from Africa; and 5. to promote international cooperation, having due regard to the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
To achieve these goals Member States pledged themselves to harmonize their policies in the foolowing fields. 1. Political and diplomatic cooperation; 2. economic cooperation, including transport and communication; 3. educational and cultural cooperation; 4. health, sanitation, and nutritional cooperation; 5. scientific and technical cooperation; and 6. cooperation for defence and security.
The OAU principles are stated in Article II of the CHARTER as follows 1 .the sovereign equality of all Mernber States; 2. non- interference in the internal affairs of States; 3. respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of each State and for its inalienable right to independent existence; 4. peaceful settlement of disputes by negotiation, mediation, conciliation or arbitration; 5. unreserved condemnation in all its forms, of political assassination as well as of subversive activities on the part of neighbouring States or any other States; 6. absolute dedication to the total emancipation of the African territories which are still dependent; 7. affirmation of a policy of non-alignment with regard to ail blocs. In proclaiming OAU principles and objectives, the Founding Fathers of the Organization envisaged clearly a unity "that transcends ethnics and national diff�rences."
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