Drug abuse treatment is cost effective in reducing drug use and bringing about related savings in health care. Treatment also consistently has been shown to reduce the costs associated with lost productivity, crime, and incarceration across various settings and populations. The largest economic benefit of treatment is seen in avoided costs of crime (incarceration and victimization costs). Providing methadone treatment to opioid-addicted prisoners prior to their release, for example, not only helps to reduce drug use but also avoids the much higher imprisonment costs for drug-related crime.Even greater economic benefits result from treating offenders with co-occurring mental health problems and substance use disorders. Residential prison treatment is more cost effective if offenders attend treatment postrelease, according to research (Martin et al. 1999; Butzin et al. 2006). Drug courts also convey positive economic benefits, including participant-earned wages and avoided incarceration and future crime costs.