U.S. Constitution, ARTICLE III Section 1 The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Article III establishes the Judiciary as the third branch of government. It states that the Judicial power of the country will be held by the Supreme Court. This is understood to mean that the Supreme Court is the ultimate arbiter of the laws of the land. The Supreme Court cannot decide in advance whether a law is constitutional. It can only do so after there has been a legal case that challenges the law. The Constitution also does not create courts, other than the Supreme Court. Rather, it leaves the creation of the lower court system it up to Congress, which they start doing through the Judiciary Act. The Constitution established life long tenure for judges. It furthermore ensures that judges cannot be threatened with a reduction in salary, if they decide against any particular interest.