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Your Thoughts on Racism & Police Violence in America
by Causes
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  • NoHedges
    Voted Yes

    Junnalayn, And again we see evidence of a fourth turning.... Late Medeival Saeculum: The War of the Roses (Fourth Turning, 1459–1487) began with an irrevocable break between the ruling Houses of Lancaster and York. After a bloody civil war, Yorkist kings (Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III) mostly prevailed in reigns that were punctuated with invasions and rebellions. At Bosworth Field (in 1485), Henry Tudor defeated Richard III and crowned himself Henry VII, founder of a new royal dynasty. Two years later he defeated a pretender at the Battle of Stoke, which won him the enduring confidence of his subjects. ◾ Arthurians entering young adulthood: Hero ◾ Humanists entering childhood: Artist Tudor Saeculum The Armada Crisis (Fourth Turning, 1569–1594) began when the powerful Duke of Norfolk was linked to a Spanish plot against the English throne, a discovery which galvanized newly-Protestant England against the global threat of the Catholic Hapsburgs. A crescendo of surrogate wars and privateering culminated in England’s miraculous victory over the Spanish Armada invasion (in 1588). The mood of emergency relaxed after the suc- cessful resistance of Holland and the breaking of Spanish control over France. ◾ Reformation entering elderhood: Prophet ◾ Reprisal entering midlife: Nomad ◾ Elizabethans entering young adulthood: Hero ◾ Parliamentarians entering childhood: Artist New World Saeculum The colonial Glorious Revolution (Fourth Turning, 1675–1704) began with civil upheavals and catastrophic Indian wars—soon followed by Parliamentary efforts to reassert direct royal control over the colonies. The ensu- ing resistance culminated in 1689 with colonial rebel- lions that were triggered by news of the Glorious Revolution in England on behalf of William of Orange. A further decade of war against Canadian New France ended with Britain’s global triumph, vigorous institu- tions of colonial self-rule, and a new era of peace with local native tribes. ◾ Puritans entering elderhood: Prophet ◾ Cavaliers entering midlife: Nomad ◾ Glorious entering young adulthood: Hero ◾ Enlighteners entering childhood: Artist ———————- Note: America has experienced great cataclysms or “Crises” about every eighty years or so. Exactly eighty-five years before Pearl Harbor Day, the first Confederate shot was fired at Fort Sumter. Eighty-five years before that, the founding fathers were signing the Declaration of Independence, launching the American Revolution. Another eighty-seven years passed between the Anglo-American “Glorious Revolution” of 1689 and Independence day. Go back a slightly longer period, and you reach the English naval victory over the Spanish Armada—a turning point in England’s history. And another century before that takes you to the end of the War of Roses, a bloody civil war whose passage enabled “Tudor” England to emerge as a modern nation state. —————————- Revolutionary Saeculum American Revolution (Fourth Turning, 1773–1794) began when Parliament’s response to the Boston Tea Party ignited a colonial tinderbox—leading directly to the first Continental Congress, the battle of Concord, and the Declaration of Independence. The war climaxed with the colonial triumph at Yorktown (in 1781). Seven years later, the new “states” ratified a nation-forging Constitution. The crisis mood eased once President Washington weath- ered the Jacobins, put down the Whiskey Rebels, and settled on a final treaty with England. ◾ Awakeners entering elderhood: Prophet ◾ Liberty entering midlife: Nomad ◾ Republicans entering young adulthood: Hero ◾ Compromisers entering childhood: Artist Civil War Saeculum The Civil War (Fourth Turning, 1860–1865) began with a presidential election that many southerners interpreted as an invitation to secede. The attack on Fort Sumter triggered the most violent conflict ever fought on New World soil. The war reached its climax in the Emancipation Proclamation and Battle of Gettysburg (in 1863). Two years later, the Confederacy was beaten into bloody submission and Lincoln was assassinated— a grim end to a crusade many had hoped would “trample out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored.” ◾ The first Transcendentals entering elderhood: Prophet ◾ The first Gilded entering midlife: Nomad ◾ The first Progressives entering young adulthood: Artist ◾ The first Missionaries entering childhood: Prophet Great Power Saeculum The Great Depression & World War II (Fourth Turning, 1929–1946) began suddenly with the Black Tuesday stock-market crash. After a three-year economic free fall, the Great Depression triggered the New Deal revolu- tion, a vast expansion of government, and hopes for a renewal of national community. After Pearl Harbor, America planned, mobilized, and produced for war on a scale that made possible the massive D-Day invasion (in 1944). Two years later, the crisis mood eased with America’s surprisingly trouble-free demobilization. ◾ Missionaries entering elderhood: Phophet ◾ Lost entering midlife: Nomad ◾ G.I.s entering young adulthood: Hero ◾ Silent entering childhood: Artist And now... Millennial Saeculum The Global Financial Crisis (Fourth Turning, 2008-2029?) was catalyzed by the 2008 global financial melt-down—leading to the most severe global economic downturn since the Great Depression—and by the historic Presidential election of that same year. With public trust continuing to ebb, the regeneracy phase of this crisis (in which civic purpose begins strengthen) Most likely, this Fourth Turning will come to an end in the late 2020s, just as the rising Homeland Generation is beginning to embark on careers. ◾ Boomers entering elderhood: Prophet ◾ Xers entering midlife: Nomad ◾ Millennials entering young adulthood: Hero ◾ Homelanders entering childhood: Artist ————————————- More on the generational archetypes: Prophet generations are born after a great war or other crisis, during a time of rejuvenated community life and consensus around a new societal order. Prophets grow up as the increasingly indulged children of this post-crisis era, come of age as narcissistic young crusaders of a spiritual awakening, cultivate principle as moralistic midlifers, and emerge as wise elders guiding another historical crisis. By virtue of this location in history, such generations tend to be remembered for their coming-of-age passion and their principled elder stewardship. Their principle endowments are often in the domain of vision, values, and religion. Their best-known historical leaders include John Winthrop, William Berkeley, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, James Polk, Abraham Lincoln, Herbert Hoover, and Franklin Roosevelt. These were principled moralists, summoners of human sacrifice, and wagers of righteous wars. Early in life, few saw combat in uniform; later in life, most came to be revered more for their inspiring words than for their grand deeds. (Example among today’s living generations: Boomers.) Nomad generations are born during a spiritual awakening, a time of social ideals and spiritual agendas when youth-fired attacks break out against the established institutional order. Nomads grow up as underprotected children during this awakening, come of age as alienated young adults in a post-awakening world, mellow into pragmatic midlife leaders during a historical crisis, and age into tough post-crisis elders. By virtue of this location in history, such generations tend to be remembered for their rising-adult years of hell-raising and for their midlife years of hands-on, get-it-done leadership. Their principle endowments are often in the domain of liberty, survival, and honor. Their best-known historical leaders include Nathaniel Bacon, William Stoughton, George Washington, John Adams, Ulysses Grant, Grover Cleveland, Harry Truman, and Dwight Eisenhower. These have been cunning, hard-to-fool realists—taciturn warriors who prefer to meet problems and adversaries one-on-one. (Example among today’s living generations: Generation X.) Hero generations are born after a spiritual awakening, during a time of individual pragmatism, self-reliance, laissez faire, and national (or sectional or ethnic) chauvinism. Heroes grow up as increasingly protected post-awakening children, come of age as the heroic young team-workers of a historical crisis, demonstrate hubris as energetic midlifers, and emerge as powerful elders attacked by another awakening. By virtue of this location in history, such generations tend to be remembered for their collective coming-of-age triumphs and their hubristic elder achievements. Their principle endowments are often in the domain of community, affluence, and technology. Their best-known historical leaders include Cotton Mather, “King” Carter, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan. These have been vigorous and rational institution builders. In midlife, all have been aggressive advocates of economic prosperity and public optimism, and all have maintained a reputation for civic energy and competence to the very ends of their lives. (Examples among today’s living generations: G.I.s and Millennials.) Artist generations are born during a great war or other historical crisis, a time when great worldly perils boil off the complexity of life and public consensus, aggressive institutions, and personal sacrifice prevail. Artists grow up overprotected by adults preoccupied with the crisis, come of age as the sensitive young adults of a post-crisis world, break free as indecisive midlife leaders during a spiritual awakening, and age into empathic post-awakening elders. By virtue of this location in history, such generations tend to be remembered for their quiet years of rising adulthood and their midlife years of flexible, consensus-building leadership. Their principle endowments are often in the domain of pluralism, expertise and due process. Their best-known historical leaders include William Shirley, Cadwallader Colden, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. These have been sensitive and complex social technicians, advocates of fair play and the politics of inclusion. (Examples among today’s living generations: Silent and Homelanders.) Note: Above is a repost of various content found on:

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