The available literature on tobacco endgames tends to belimited to discussing means, targets and difﬁculties. This article offers additional ideas on the key elements of end game strategies and the circumstances in which these are likely to be adopted and implemented. We suggest such strategies will include explicit plans, will deﬁne the nature of 'the end of tobacco use/sale' andhave target dates within 20 years. The likely circumstances for endgame strategy development include low (probably under 15% adult smoking) prevalence and/or rapid prevalence reductions, wide support and strong political leadership. Even with some or all these circumstances, opposition from business,internal government forces and international factors may inﬂuence results.