to ensure the long-term protection of wild ape populations and their habitat in natural host countries in Africa, while preserving biodiversity, cultural traditions and livelihoods.

This target may be reached through research and training, capacity building, community development, and cooperative Community-Centered Conservation (CCC) measures designed to reduce trading of endangered species as bushmeat or pets, while preserving forest habitats and cultural livelihoods.

1. To begin to make a difference in face of such fundamental challenges requires a holistic, multi-pronged response.