This bill would direct the Comptroller General of the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to audit the Federal Reserve System's Board of Governors and the Federal Reserve Banks within 12 months of this bill’s enactment. The GAO would then submit a detailed report of the audit’s findings and conclusions to Congress within 90 days of the audit’s completion.
What is Senate Bill S. 2232?
Cost of Senate Bill S. 2232
In-Depth: The Chairwoman of the Federal Reserve — Janet Yellen — has fought attempts to audit and externally review how the Fed makes its decisions, for fear that it would “politicize monetary policy.” She has gone on record saying “I want to be completely clear, I strongly oppose Audit the Fed.”
Sponsoring Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY) disagrees, saying:
“A complete and thorough audit of the Fed will finally allow the American people to know exactly how their money is being spent by Washington. The Fed currently operates under a cloak of secrecy and it has gone on for too long. The American people have a right to know what the Federal Reserve is doing with our nation’s money supply.”
The Federal Reserve Board, the 12 Federal Reserve banks, and the Federal Reserve system as a whole are all subject to audits by the Government Accountability Office (GAO). The financial statements of the banks and the system in its entirety are audited by the Office of the Inspector General, which also investigates the Federal Reserve's operations. But current oversight has been deemed insufficient by some who want broader insight into the Federal Reserve's activities, despite fierce resistance.
Of Note: Since 1977 the Federal Reserve has operated under what is known as the 'dual mandate' which sets its goal as maximizing employment, while supporting stable prices (avoiding inflation), and maintaining moderate long-term interest rates.
- Open Market Operations, which directly affect the money supply, include the buying and selling of U.S. Treasury bonds to influence the interest rate up or down — whichever is more desirable given economic conditions. When the Federal Reserve buys bonds, the money supply grows and interest decreases. Conversely, when it sells bonds, the money supply shrinks and interest rates rise.
- Changes in the discount rate, i.e. the interest rate that Federal Reserve Banks charge depository institutions for short-term loans.
- Modifying the reserve requirements for depository institutions — which is the ratio of reserves to deposits those institutions are required to maintain in their vaults or on deposit at a Federal Reserve Bank.
In general, if the economy
is growing rapidly and there are concerns about inflation rising to a
level that erodes consumers purchasing power, the Federal Reserve
might raise interest rates and shrink the money supply. It can also
attempt to rein in the availability of credit through reserve
requirements and the discount rate.
On the flip side, if the
economy is in recession or sluggish, the Federal Reserve will attempt to
broaden the money supply and lower interest rates to encourage economic
growth. Meanwhile it can make credit more available to businesses and
consumers by easing reserve requirements.
There are several
areas where Federal Reserve critics express their concerns. Free-market
activists disagree with Federal Reserve's role in managing the economy.
They argue that its manipulations distort interest rates from the
market's true equilibrium — leading to 'bubbles' and over-investment.
They point to examples like the dot-com bubble or the subprime mortgage bubble.
Other critics point to policies that they say help fuel economic inequality —
where the wealthy see their assets grow at a faster rate, while
the average person's income remains stagnant. Former Federal Reserve
Chairman, Ben Bernanke, isn't persuaded
by those claims though — he believes that remedying inequality isn't an
attainable goal of monetary policy (other than through job
creation). He also foists the blame onto other long-term structural
causes of economic inequality like globalization, demographics, and
- Sponsoring Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY) Press Release
- New York Post
- FreedomWorks (In Favor)
- Washington Post (Opposed)
- The Hill (Context)
- Investopedia (Context)
- Federal Reserve Education (Context)
(Photo Credit: A scone for Alexander Kouts)
Federal Reserve Transparency Act of 2015
A bill to require a full audit of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal reserve banks by the Comptroller General of the United States, and for other purposes.
- Not enactedThe President has not signed this bill
- The house has not voted
- The senate has not votedIntroducedNovember 3rd, 2015